Bibles arrive in Kasena-land

I recently had an excited call from Rev. Jonah Kwotua, one of the Kasem translators, to say that he and Rev. Abraham Ayiakwo (another translator) were watching the Kasem Bibles being unloaded off a truck near Abraham’s home on the edge of Navrongo. This was the first they had seen of the printed Bibles so it was a big day for them, having worked on the Old Testament translation for 15 years.

8,000 Bibles were printed in South Korea and shipped to Tema, the port near Accra. Unfortunately 180 of the Bibles had suffered water damage en route, but 466 boxes containing 16 Bibles each were loaded on to a truck in Accra and safely made the 2-day road trip up to Navrongo.

Abraham quoted the following verse from the Bible (Proverbs 25:25):

Kwor-ywoŋa ná nwoŋi yiga yiga ka ba,
ka pae bochara tigi mo,
ne na-zura na zuri bochare tei to.

When a sweet message arrives from far far away, it causes chests (“hearts”) to be at ease, like how cold water cools the chest.

Here are some pictures:

Boxes of Bibles ready to leave Accra
Boxes of Bibles stored in Accra
Ready to leave Accra, if God wills!
Ready to leave Accra, if God wills!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Undamaged Bibles
Undamaged Bibles
Boxes damaged by water
Boxes damaged by water

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibles unloaded in Navrongo
Bibles unloaded in Navrongo

The Kasem Bible has been printed!

When we first settled in Paga on the northern border of Ghana in 1972 we had no inkling of the long journey we were then embarking upon. We started to learn the Kasem language and to observe and absorb local cultural patterns. We made plenty of mistakes, both in speaking the language (getting the tones right was a special challenge) and also in meeting expectations of polite behaviour, such as keeping the left hand firmly out of use for public interaction. We persevered through ups and downs with God’s help and in 1988 the New Testament in Kasem was published. By this time there was a growing number of readers as a result of Judy’s work on preparing reading primers and in training volunteer teachers for adult literacy classes. These classes were geared towards those who had not been able to attend school and eventually helped several thousand people to become functionally literate.

When work on the New Testament was completed and the literacy work was established under local leadership we settled in Tamale, which was 120 miles south of the Kasena homeland.  Most of our focus was on helping translation programmes being conducted in other Ghanaian languages, but because there was interest from the Kasena churches in having the Old Testament as well as the New, we ran a week’s training in translation principles for 15 or so potential translators before we left Ghana to settle back in the UK in 1990. We didn’t know if we would be going back to Ghana after our two children completed secondary school, but as it turned out …

We returned to Ghana in 2000 and discovered that Rev. Jonah Kwotua, one of those who had attended the translation training in 1990, had made a serious start on the Kasem Old Testament translation. In time he was joined by Rev. Abraham Ayiakwo and later by Rev. James Wechu. However, I had little time to help them other than an occasional one-day 250 mile round trip from Tamale to encourage and guide them. Progress in the translation was steady but not spectacular! In 2006 we returned to the UK to take care of Judy’s mum and this turned out to provide a new impetus for the translation as I could now give 4 days a week to checking over the work of the translators using software that kept each of us up to date with one another’s work. Twice a year I made a four-week visit to Ghana to work with the translators face-to-face.

And so, by God’s grace, we saw the final steps on translation of the Old Testament and revision of the New Testament completed by the close of 2013. After a year of preparation of the print-ready copy, the Bible was sent to the printers in South Korea in December 2014 and production of 8,000 Bibles was finished in March 2015. We have now received two copies by Airmail, while 8,000 copies should be arriving at the port of Tema, near Ghana’s capital city, Accra. We are pleased to see the Kasem Bible finally in print. If it is exciting for us to hold a copy in our hands, how much more will it be for the Kasena people to read God’s Word in their heart language.

Now we wait to hear from the church leaders in Kasena-land to find out when the launch and dedication events will be held. We expect this to be held off until November when the rainy season is over and people are free to celebrate. We hope to be there!

Working on final review of the Kasem Bible, May 2013
Working on final review of the Kasem Bible, May 2013
Kasem Bible 2w
Reading the Psalms in Kasem

Celebration!

Celebration!

Rev Abraham Ayiakwo, Judy & Philip Hewer and Rev Jonah Kwotua celebrate completion of work on the Kasem Bible, after working for three weeks with the GILLBT typesetter, John Sidsaya. The text of the Bible was “signed off” at 11 am on Friday 22nd November 2013, to say that no more changes would be made, and giving the go-ahead for final formatting prior to sending to the printers in South Korea. The Kasem New Testament was published in 1988 and work started on the translation of the Old Testament 10 years later.

See more news here.

Sweet-heart gifts

In a couple of days we leave for a 6-week visit to Ghana to work with the translation team on the Kasem Bible. We are working towards having the Bible ready to start the publication process in November this year, and there are a lot of details to pick up on. Here is one example.

There are several different kinds of sacrifices and offerings described in the Old Testament, with details of when they are to be offered and for what purpose. Alongside these “obligatory” offerings, there is the opportunity for the people of Israel to bring “freewill” offerings that are presented to God on a voluntary basis. These might be to help with a particular need within the community of God’s people, e.g. work on the sanctuary (Exodus 36:3), or to express personal thanksgiving for God’s blessing (Deuteronomy 16:10).

In checking the consistency of  how we had translated the Hebrew term נְדָבָה (nǝdabah) I found we had used two expressions. Firstly there was “own-thinking gifts”, focusing on the element of choice. But we had also in some places used “sweet-inside gifts”, focusing more on the generosity of a gift one is not obliged to make. Kasem uses a lot of idioms based on body parts to express attitudes and emotions. In this case the “inside” (wo) is the equivalent of the heart, as used in English expressions. These would be gifts made from a sweet-heart (wo-ywoŋo pɛɛra), expressing the generous attitude with which they are made.

We have to decide which of these expressions would be better for translating “freewill offerings” and then check the consistency of translation for all 26 occurrences of the Hebrew term. This process needs to be repeated for many terms and expressions. We thank God for excellent software to assist in the task.

As a final warning, Kasem idioms are not always what they seem. To have a warm heart (n wo lona) means you are stingy. So I hope today your heart is sweet rather than warm.

Away with the manger?

With all the glitz surrounding Christmas it can be hard to disentangle the facts from the questionable add-ons. How many kings were there? Were they actually kings, anyway?   How long after the baby’s birth did they come? Did they kneel in the stable?

We can at least hold on to the manger as the place where the new-born baby was placed, but what was the manger like? And what of the inn, the hard-hearted inn-keepers and the stable which provide the essential plot-line for so many nativity plays?

Recently reading Jesus Through Middle Eastern Eyes by Kenneth E. Bailey, I have had my mind opened up to an alternative Christmas scenario which seems very convincing and which makes me question some of the long-accepted backdrop to the world-shaking birth of the long-promised Messiah:

While they were there [in Bethlehem], the time came for the baby to be born,  and she gave birth to her firstborn, a son. She wrapped him in cloths and placed him in a manger, because there was no room for them in the inn.
                                              Luke 2:6-7 New International Version

Much of Bailey’s reasoning centres around the Greek word traditionally translated in most English versions as “inn”, katalyma. Significantly, this is not the word for a commercial inn, providing rooms for strangers in return for payment. That word is pandocheion, as used in the parable of the Good Samaritan (Luke 10:34-35). katalyma is a more general word for a lodging place, and is the word used for the room where Jesus ate the Passover with his disciples (Luke 22:11). As there, it may apply to a room which is part of a larger structure and is kept available for guests. Bailey argues that it is unthinkable that Joseph, from the royal line of King David, would not have been taken in by relatives in the town of his family’s origins, especially when he arrived with a heavily pregnant wife. He would never have had to go searching for somewhere to stay among the commercial establishments of the town, and Luke would have used the appropriate Greek word if he had.

A second distraction is that the expression “no room at the inn” easily gets transformed into “no rooms available at the inn”. The Greek word topos means “room” in the sense of “space”, and so we may legitimately end up with the translation:

Mary placed the baby in a manger, because there was no space for them in the guest room.

This changes the picture entirely. Jospeh and Mary are taken in by relatives, but the guest room is already fully occupied by other relatives who have come to Bethlehem because of the census. So where is the manger? Quite probably in the family living room! A simple village home would have had one room where the family lived, ate and slept.  A guest room with a separate entrance might be at one end of the building or constructed on the flat roof. At one end of the family room would be a section, often at a lower level, where the animals would be brought in at night. The manger might be a hollowed-out dip in the floor of the living room at the end where the animals were kept, such that they could lean across and eat from it. Whether like that, or a more conventionally imagined portable wooden structure, it would make a very suitable place, lined with hay, to put to bed a baby just born in the family room.

Since there is every indication that some time passed between the arrival in Bethlehem and Mary giving birth (when the time came for the baby to be born), it is even more unlikely that a makeshift arrangement which would have brought shame on the relatives could have taken place. Later, when the Magi came on their visit, led by the appearance of the star, Matthew says:

On coming to the house, they saw the child with his mother Mary, and they bowed down and worshipped him. Then they opened their treasures and presented him with gifts of gold and of incense and of myrrh.
                                      Matthew 2:11 New International Version

It was clearly a house, not a stable, that they came to. Of course, if they came a considerable time after the birth (as is quite possible), alternative arrangements would by then have been made to house the visiting family. We cannot however escape the consistent picture which emerges from a fresh reading of the Biblical account. Whether the birth of Jesus actually happened exactly as Kenneth Bailey portrays the event, or not, it is a good reminder to approach the Bible with an open mind and not to be blinkered by traditions, however long-held and well-established they may be.

Just as he was

On Saturday we had an excellent 3-hour session at church on “Reading the Bible in a way that grips your heart”. As part of this we were exploring  in a small group the passage Mark 4:35-41, Jesus calms the storm. While this account was familiar to us, by entering into the dramatic situation and exploring some of the details we all gained new insights.

One little phrase which  we puzzled over was “just as he was” in verse 36:

Leaving the crowd behind, they took him along, just as he was, in the boat. (New International Version)

Why did Mark include this little phrase? Somebody in the group asked how we had translated it in Kasem. Prepared for everything I fired up my laptop and found the passage. Initially I was concerned that we had left it out altogether! But a closer look showed that we had taken the phrase in a slightly different way, literally:

As Jesus was sitting in the boat like that, they took him, went away and left the crowd behind. (Kasem back translation)

Turning to the Greek text there is some ambiguity in how the phrase “as he-was” should be connected with the surrounding context:

and leaving the crowd they-took-along him as he-was in the boat (Greek back translation)

With a lack of punctuation in the Greek, we can see how two slightly different meanings may arise depending on whether as he-was is primarily linked with the preceding or the following phrase. From the context we know that Jesus was already seated in a boat in order to teach the gathered crowd (Mark 4:1). So it makes sense to take  the phrase here to be connected with the following: as he-was in the boat. This is how the Good News Bible takes it:

the disciples got into the boat in which Jesus was already sitting, and they took him with them. (GNB)

Either way, you get a picture of the disciples taking charge of their rabbi who was physically worn out at the end of a busy day of teaching, saying to each other something like this:

“Teacher wants to get off to the other side of the lake and he’s in no fit state to do anything for himself. No point in moving him—just give him a cushion to make himself comfortable at the back of the boat where he won’t be in the way. We can handle it.”

How soon though the disciples realise they are in a situation they cannot handle themselves, as a storm whips up and seasoned fisherman call on the sleeping carpenter to rescue them. No wonder they end up with the question on their minds, “Who is this?!”

Ode to O

One change I have noticed in the 2011 version of the New International Version (NIV) is that they have consistently dropped the vocative form of address O, so that “O God” becomes simply “God”, for example. For some reason there are still a few Os floating around, in the Psalms in particular:

I will sing the praises of your name, O Most High.
Psalm 9:2

Arise, LORD! Lift up your hand, O God.
Psalm 10:12

However, the large majority of the 993 occurrences in the older NIV have disappeared, including those in the New Testament:

“O unbelieving and perverse generation,”
becomes:
“You unbelieving and perverse generation”
Matthew 17:17

But we still have the Os in:

“Where, O death, is your victory?
Where, O death, is your sting?”
1 Corinthians 15:5

This echoes Hosea, where they are also retained:

Where, O death, are your plagues?
Where, O grave, is your destruction?
Hosea 13:14

Since we have not in my lifetime been in the habit of using O in addressing one another, not even the Queen, it is surprising that its use has persisted in the modern “common language” versions. I guess translators have found it a  useful device for indicating a vocative form of address, and retained it even though not in current English usage.

We should not, of course, confuse O with Oh!, an exclamation which remains in current use. The 2011 NIV retains these in full force:

Oh, that you would rend the heavens and come down,
that the mountains would tremble before you!
Isaiah 64:1

It seems to me that the Good News Bible gets these muddled at one point:

“O horror! horror! How horrible it will be for all who live on earth when the sound comes from the trumpets that the other three angels must blow!”
Revelation 8:13

This surely should be Oh! It is translating “Woe! Woe! Woe to those living on the earth …” and is an exclamation, rather than a form of address to horror.

Which leads to the question, when people exclaim, or text,  (as they do, even when having no apparent affiliation to God), “OMG!”, should that be “O my God,” or “Oh! My God!” ?

I finish with an Ode to O:

O O,  you really have to go?
Oh no! Must it be so?
Oh yes! I see you are no longer needed;
language has changed and you are superseded.
But some small praise on you should be bestowed;
at very least, you are owed an ode.

Will there be drums in heaven?

There are plenty of musical instruments mentioned in the Bible—just have a look at Daniel 3:5, for example. But honest-to-goodness drums don’t seem to number among them. I was alerted to this when checking the Kasem (Ghana) translation of Daniel, where the translator had decided to draw on the wealth of Kasem words for different types of drum in order to arrive at a list of instruments as impressive as that in the original Hebrew text. Having determined that drums appeared to be without mention in Scripture, I decided that substituting drums as a cultural equivalent in the translation was not a good choice.

There is however one possible exception to all this—the Hebrew word tōp.  In nearly all versions this is translated as tambourine or timbrel in its 17 occurrences.  CEV (Contemporary English Version) translates it as small drum just once, in 1 Samuel 10:5, and GNB (Good News Bible/ Today’s English Version) also translates it as drum here, and in 6 other places. Both these versions use tambourine in all the remaining occurrences of  tōp, so it would be interesting to  know why they chose to use drum in just these few specific verses.

In any case, even if tōp could be classified as a type of drum, it is a small, hand-held percussion instrument, tapped rather than thumped. In fact, it seems to be one of the few percussion instruments of any kind  mentioned in the Bible. Psalm 150 mentions cymbals  of two types (v.5), as well as including one of the occurrences of tōp (v.4). The most complete collection of percussion instruments comes in 2 Samuel 6:5, adding rattles/ castanets/ sistrums  to the tambourines and cymbals. All in all, we are left with 17 references to tambourines, 3 to cymbals (2 of these in Psalm 150:5) and 1 to rattles.

So, will there be drums in heaven? Taken overall, Scripture seems to favour stringed instruments (harps, lyres), trumpets and woodwind (flutes) over any kind of percussion. This is even more pronounced in the New Testament, where a single mention of cymbals (1 Corinthians 13:1) is used to represent abrasive noise. In Revelation, where we might expect to get a glimpse of heavenly music, harps are definitely in vogue. Harps seem to represent peace and harmony, whereas flutes relate more to merriment, and trumpets to warnings and announcements.

I suspect heaven will be quite a noisy place (see, for example, Revelation 14:2 and 15: 2-4), but we won’t be putting our fingers in our ears, rather joining in, together with people of every nation,  tribe, people and language.